Fruit Fly Life Cycle and It’s Management Dwarka Prasad Athya, Patel Indrajeet Narendra and Anand Kumar Panday Article ID: 49 Department of Entomology J. N. K. V. V Jabalpur, MP, 482004 Corresponding Author: dwarkaprasadjnkvv512@gmail.com Introduction Drosophila melanogaster is one of the small insect pests which is commonly found near unripe and rotted fruits. The mango fruit fly: population and varietal susceptibility studies. The insect pest inside the mangoes is the mango nut weevil or stone weevil, Sternochetus Mangiferae. Causes of damage to some wild mango fruit trees in Zambia. Adult female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), laying eggs by inserting her ovipositor in … Mango Fruit Fly Life Cycle – Egg, Larval, Pupal, Fly. The mature larva emerges from the fruit, drops to the ground, and forms a tan to dark brown puparium. Attacks by this mango pests are so severe that you can lose up to 50% of your mango yields. A major route by which this pest may spread in trade or transport is through eggs and larvae hidden in fruiting bodies. A striking photo, but I couldn’t look at it too long, as it made my skin crawl!!! Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Its duration depends on conditions, season and temperatures and lasts from 21 to 100 days. The females have tapering abdomen which ends in an ovipositor. 601 pp. However, you have to learn about different life stages so that you can easily target and manage it. Thanks for being brave and taking a look! The life cycle takes about 2.5 weeks during summer. Biology: It is presumed that the life cycle and biology of Asian guava fruit fly are similar to those of related economic pests such as oriental and peach fruit fly. Attack of mangoes in Zambia by the fruit fly. The adults are 7.5-10 mm long and about 4 mm wide, with wing cases of variable colour: dark brown, black, grey, with light (yellowish) patches (Photo 1&2). The fruit fly maggots feed inside the fruit causing sunken, discoloured patches, distortions and open cracks. Pingback: Transient Alium | What's (in) the picture? 1986. You must be thinking about the different ways by which you can control this creature. ... B. zonatus and B. correctus are the most common fruitflies which cause serious damage to mature mango fruits. Once the larvae make contact with a mammalian host, such as a dog, rodent, or … The flies mate and lay eggs about 2 weeks after pupation. Fruit flies find the fruits to lay in by their colour, shape and the smell of the fruit, leaves and the bacteria on them. Life stage durations are approximately as follows: Females first oviposit at about age five days, and oviposition continues up to age two weeks, with up to eight weeks in laboratory colonies. N'Guetta K. 1994. Zimbabwe Science News 29: 12-14. Life cycle of Fruit fly Management •Collect fallen infested fruits and dispose them by dumping in a pit •Provide summer ploughing to expose the pupa •Monitor the activity of flies with methyl eugenol sex lure traps. This fly is a serious pest in smallholder and commercial mango across sub-Saharan Africa, where it is more destructive than either the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly; Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) or the Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa Karsch) (Malio 1979, Labuschagne et al. It is supported by a number of cultural control measures. These bacterial colonies are more plentiful under humid conditions. This week’s posts are in response to the WordPress photo challenge on the theme of ‘transient.’. Labuschagne T, Brink T, Steyn WP, De Beer MS. 1996. This fly is widely distributed but is more abundant in wet, lowland areas. 1995, Lux et al. Mango may come and mango may go, but fruit flies go on flying for ever? Mango season is is a big hit with everything from bugs to wild pigs, It’s tailing off now, just a few left on the tree. Zaprionus indianus also looks like this, but hasn’t been seen in Hawaii yet, as far as I know. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. Look no further, for the answer is here! The average natural life span of fruit fly adults in optimal temperatures is 40 to 50 days. The pupae and adults also develop there. During its lifetime, a female fruit fly may lay 400 eggs or more. Wild guava serves as a reservoir host from which the fly attacks cultivated crops. Ceratitis cosyra differs also from the Natal fly, the latter being larger, lacking black spots laterally (postpronotal) on the thorax, and the costal band and discal crossband are not joined. The fly's impact is growing along with the more widespread commercialization of mango. Fruits - Paris 49: 430- 431, 502-503. The adult flies congregate on foliage and fruit to feed on bacterial colonies and later to mate. International Institute of Entomology, London. Adult populations can be reduced with insecticidal protein-bait sprays in the same manner as other fruit flies. Egg Laying . And third, these fruit flies won’t be around long either, having a lifespan in the region of 30 days. In the life cycle of a mango, it’s a very short interval between ripening on the tree and rotting on the ground. Lifecycle of tephritid fruit fly Ⓒ S. Ekesi, icipe Pest and disease Management. The most devastation mango fruit flies Ceratitis cosyra followed by C. rosa and C. capitata. ( Log Out /  Rendell CH, Mwashayenyi E, Banga DJ. Fruit Fly Puparium . Body and wing color yellowish; sides and posterior of thorax prominently ringed with black spots, dorsum yellowish except for two tiny black spots centrally and two larger black spots near scutellum; scutellum with three wide, black stripes separated by narrow yellow stripes; wing length 4–6 mm, costal band and discal crossband joined. Pupation occurs in the soil. Lifecycle (at approx. Malio E. 1979. Second, this mango has clearly been chewed over by one of the transient wild pigs that pass through from time to time, more so during mango season. Veterinarians usually pop the flies out like a pimple. 1998). Keywords: Mango production, Fruit fly infestation, Mean yield decrease loss, Producer risk loss . Excellent keys to distinguish major fruit fly pests of the genus Ceratitis are available in White and Elson-Harris (1992). 1. Fruits are heavily infested, with an average of 50 larvae per fruit (Malio 1979; Lux, personal communication for laboratory colony data). 1979. ( Log Out /  Academic Abstract The mango tree is one the important sources of income in the rural economy of Senegal. larva - five or more days, nine to 15 days in laboratory colonies, adult - up to 41 days (60 days in laboratory colonies). Pingback: Weekly Photo Challenge: Transient | Jinan Daily Photo: The Sequel, Pingback: Weekly Photo Challenge: Tranisient | Ruined for Life: Phoenix Edition. moving up to 200 km. •Adult – Light brown with transparent wing Maggots of fruit fly dropping out of mango fruit . Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. What is the life cycle of the insect inside the mango fruit? Fruit flies known as Ceratitis giffardi Bezzi and Ceratitis sarcocephali (Bezzi) may be the same as Ceratitis cosyra, but the taxonomy remains ambiguous (De Meyer 1998). Mango worms or larvae penetrate the skin of mammal hosts, but what happens before then? and similar pest species, such as Ceratitis discussa Munro. There seem to be some interesting different species of fly or beetle with them. in contaminated soil, often containing faeces … Fruit fly Management TYPICAL LIFE CYCLE Fusarium wilt distances within a short time; exceptional observa-tions showed a Bactrocera sp. De Meyer (1998) provided a complete taxonomic treatment of the subgenus Ceratalaspis, including key characters to separate Ceratitis cosyra from other closely related In the life cycle of a mango, it’s a very short interval between ripening on the tree and rotting on the ground. The eggs hatch into larvae inside the fruit after a few days (2-4 days). Ripening mangos can be attacked by different types of mango fruit flies. In Ivory Coast, Ceratitis cosyra and Ceratitis anonae Graham are the main pests in guava (N'Guetta 1993). However, the thorax of Medfly has much more black, and the apex of its scutellum is solid black; the costal band and discal crossband of the Medfly wing are not joined. Symposium on tropical orchards, Montpellier, France, 30 August - 5 September, 1993. Photograph by Jeffrey Lotz, Division of Plant Industry. Cordylobia anthropophaga, the mango fly, tumbu fly, tumba fly, putzi fly, or skin maggot fly, is a species of blow-fly common in East and Central Africa.It is a parasite of large mammals (including humans) during its larval stage. Pest and disease Management: General illustration of the concept of Infonet-biovision This illustration shows the methods promoted on infonet-biovision. Pingback: Weekly Photo Challenge: Delta | Jinan Daily Photo: The Sequel, Pingback: Weekly Photo Challenge: Delta | No Fixed Plans, Pingback: Weekly Photo Challenge: Delta | Ruined for Life: Phoenix Edition, Pingback: This Too Shall Pass | Jinan Daily Photo: The Sequel. The adult flies are dark brown in color and measure 7 mm in length and 4 mm across the wings. Stages of fruit fly life cycle. ( Log Out /  Javaid I. The adults hibernate during the non-fruiting period. The females lay their eggs under the surface of the fruit skin. At this point the larvae has consumed enough food and grown enough to grow a hard outer skin that will house it for about 4-6 days. Flies overwinter in a facultative diapause, eclosing the following summer as adults to complete their univoltine life cycle. Fruit flies undergo three stages of development before emerging as adults: egg, larva and pupa. Change ), Weekly Photo Challenge: Delta | Jinan Daily Photo: The Sequel, Weekly Photo Challenge: Delta | No Fixed Plans, Weekly Photo Challenge: Delta | Ruined for Life: Phoenix Edition, This Too Shall Pass | Jinan Daily Photo: The Sequel, Weekly Photo Challenge: Transient | No Fixed Plans. Eggs hatch and fly larvae feed in host fruit for 2–4 weeks. Pingback: Weekly Photo Challenge: Transient | No Fixed Plans. The life span of the fruit fly is heavily influenced by … Biological cycle: Eggs, larvae, pupae and adult are the four stages that the Medfly passes to complete its life cycle. However, fruit fly life cycle varies in different species. Fruit flies are about 4-7mm long, they pierce the fruits and lay eggs in fruits. Revision of the subgenus, Javaid I, De Lima CPF. Figure 1. This little scene could be considered transient on three counts. Life stage durations are approximately as follows: 1. egg - two to three days 2. larva - five or more days, nine to 15 days in laboratory colonies 3. pupa - nine to 12 days 4. adult - up to 41 days (60 days in laboratory colonies) Females first oviposit at about age five days, and oviposition continues up to age two weeks, with up to eight weeks in laboratory colonies. Transient Alium | What's (in) the picture? Fruit Flies of Economic Significance: Their Identification and Bionomics. The egg and larval stages span approximately eight days, while the pupal stage lasts six days. Melon and breadfruit flies mate at dusk, while mango fly mates at any time. When fruit abscises, larvae leave fruit, burrow into the ground, and form puparia. Mango fruit fly or Marula fruit fly (Ceratitis cosyra) ... Life cycle of tephritid fruit flies. Second, this mango has clearly been chewed over by one of the transient wild pigs that pass through from time to time, more so during mango season. Ceratitis cosyra adults may be attracted to terpinyl acetate, but not to trimedlure or methyl eugenol. And where do they come from? This species is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, occurring in at least 22 countries, including Ivory Coast, Kenya, Madagascar, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe (CABI/EPPO 1999). They hatch in 1-1/2 days. First is the fact that this is a mango that has fallen from the tree. Hi… A popular fruit. Adult female mango fruit fly, Ceratitis cosyra (Walker). Traps are placed at sea and airports and in fruit-fly free areas on a 1 km grid format (possibly less in urban areas, and around orchards), and checked weekly. ( Log Out /  The pupal stage lasts about 10 days. The young one or grubs as soon as they hatch out from the eggs tunnel in a zig zag manner through the pulp, endocarp and the seed coat and finally reach the cotyledons. Fruit fly larvae (or maggots) I know what you mean, but I have to say the more I watch bugs, the more interesting I find them. Fruits are heavily infested, with an average of 50 larvae per fruit (Malio 1979; Lux, personal communication for laboratory colony data). prolonged exposure to temperatures below 7.5°C. The weevils are nocturnal. 1999. Observations on the mango fruit fly. Note that at this stage of the life cycle you are unlikely to be able to recognise the presence of fruit fly eggs in your fruit as the eggs are very small. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. include citrus, guava, mango, peach, and papaya. . Mango fly larvae can survive without a host for up to two weeks. C. anthropophaga has been endemic in the subtropics of Africa for more than 135 years and is a common cause of myiasis in humans in the region. This fruit fly, also called the vinegar fly, is probably Zaprionus ghesquierei, an invasive species known to have reached Hawaii. I think the larger ones are a different kind of fruit fly, not sure which kind though. Lux SA, Zenz N, Kimani S. 1998. Yearbook South African Mango Growers' Association 16: 17-19. The life cycle of a mango fly depends on the presence of a host to feed and incubate it. ICIPE Annual Scientific Report 1998- 1999 7: 78-80. CAB International / European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (CABI/EPPO). Adults are similar in size, coloration, and wing markings to Medfly. Mango trees in Carnarvon are protected from fruit flies and weather damage with paper bags. The eggs measure about 1/25 by 1/250 inch and are white, elongate, and elliptical. (all from White and Elson-Harris 1992; De Meyer 1998; and S. Lux, ICIPE, Nairobi, personal communication). About nine days are required for attainment of sexual maturity after the adult fly emerges. However, mango producers in Ziguinchor are facing fruit fly infestations leading to important losses in income. Also, males of Ceratitis cosyra, as members of the subgenus Ceratalaspis, lack capitate setae such as are present in subgenus Ceratitis (e.g., Medfly), and they lack feathering of the tibia as in the subgenus Pterandrus (e.g., Natal fly). International Pest Control 28: 98-99. The adult fruit fly lives for several weeks. (ABC Rural: Eliza Wood)It was important to try to break the cycle between the seasons, Ms Leighton said. Inventory of insect fruit pests in northern Cote d'Ivoire. The life cycle of a fruit fly includes some distinct stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult fly. Female flies need protein to develop eggs. In summers the total life cycle occupies 2-3 weeks. White IM, Elson-Harris M. 1992. The female punctures the outer wall of the mature fruits with … Biology Egg: Female flies insert eggs under the skin of fruit in clusters of 10 to 50 about 1/25 to 1/8 inch below the fruit surface. It has been suggested that periods of hibernation and activity are associated with day length. The mango fly lays its eggs (roughly 100-300 of them!) Development from egg to adult under summer conditions requires about 16 days. The Third Step In The Fruit Fly Life Cycle Time. The mango fruit fly, Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), is also commonly known as the marula fruit fly, based on its common occurrence in these host plants. Late maturing varieties of mango suffer most in Zambia (Javaid 1986). Bactrocera dorsalis, previously known as Dacus dorsalis and commonly referred to as the oriental fruit fly, is a species of tephritid fruit fly that is endemic to Southeast Asia.It is one of the major pest species in the genus Bactrocera with a broad host range of cultivated and wild fruits. And third, these fruit flies won’t be around long either, having a lifespan in the region of 30 days. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Fruit flies attacking mangoes -- their importance and post harvest control. At room temperature, fruit flies can develop into adults within one to two weeks. Ceratitis cosyra, as larvae in infested mangoes from Africa, is one of the most commonly intercepted fruit flies in Europe (I. M. White, The Natural History Museum, London, personal communication). The damage is done by the larvae tunneling into the seed. Female fruit flies are capable of mating and laying several batches of eggs in that time, allowing the fruit fly population in a home to multiply quickly. The aim is to prevent any fruit fly invading the area from completing its life cycle. Weekly Photo Challenge: Transient | Jinan Daily Photo: The Sequel, Weekly Photo Challenge: Tranisient | Ruined for Life: Phoenix Edition. Marula is a native African fruit related to mango and sometimes known locally as wild plum. In the Northern Territory of Australia, this is between December and mid-August. 1995. Illegal movement of fruit is a major risk for invasion of fruit flies elsewhere. The African fruit fly initiative: development, testing and dissemination of technologies for the control of fruit flies. The life cycle of Tephritidae species The life cycle of most Tephritidae species is similar. Post-harvest quarantine treatments include hot water dips (Ceratitis cosyra larvae survive heat treatment better than Medfly or Natal fruit fly, but exact treatment parameters are not yet established) and 1996, Javaid 1979, De Lima 1979, Rendell et al. Fruit flies are the most serious insect pests on zucchini/squash with the ability to totally wipe out any marketable fruit. See the summary of the metamorphosis of the mango fly below. De Meyer M. 1998. Rhagoletis uses host fruit as a rendezvous site for mating and oviposition. While in this protect layering, a process known as metamorphosis takes place. citrus and mango, but damage is relatively small as typically only one or two larvae occur in each fruit. May spread in trade or transport is through eggs and larvae hidden in fruiting bodies also... And sometimes known locally as wild plum 1992 ) only one or two larvae in. A few days ( 2-4 days ) little scene could be considered transient on three counts hi… citrus... In color and measure 7 mm in length and 4 mm across the wings summer as adults to complete life! Measure 7 mm in length and 4 mm across the wings keywords: mango production, fruit fly population. For ever or stone weevil, Sternochetus Mangiferae B. correctus are the main pests guava. Coloration, and adult fly short time ; exceptional observa-tions showed a Bactrocera sp look it! Weevil, Sternochetus Mangiferae by 1/250 inch and are White, elongate, and forms a tan dark... Eggs or more the third Step in the Rural economy of Senegal drops the. To mate takes about 2.5 weeks during summer transient on three counts Identification. Of 30 days post harvest control illustration shows the methods promoted on Infonet-biovision sexual maturity after adult... Egg and larval stages span approximately eight days, while the pupal stage lasts six days mango fly.. The main pests in Northern Cote d'Ivoire has been suggested that periods of hibernation and activity are associated with length! Must be thinking mango fruit fly life cycle the different ways by which this pest may spread in trade transport! At room temperature, fruit fly initiative: development, testing and dissemination of technologies for control!, personal communication ) Wood ) it was important to try to break the between. Steyn WP, De Lima 1979, De Lima CPF labuschagne t, Steyn WP, De Beer MS... 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And forms a tan to dark brown puparium typically only one or two larvae occur in each fruit cycle about! Eggs measure about 1/25 by 1/250 inch and are White, elongate, and elliptical long, they pierce fruits... South African mango Growers ' Association 16: 17-19 through eggs and larvae hidden in fruiting.... Passes to complete its life cycle of most Tephritidae species the life cycle the,. In Zambia by the larvae tunneling into the ground, and wing markings to Medfly fruits and eggs... Maturity after the adult fly ( 1992 ) Change ), you are commenting using your WordPress.com account 2. Distortions and open cracks your Facebook account and disease Management nine days are required attainment! N'Guetta 1993 ) not sure which kind though in a facultative diapause eclosing. African mango Growers ' Association 16: 17-19 have reached Hawaii White elongate. Learn about different life stages so that you can lose up to two weeks, Javaid I, De MS.. What is the mango fly below Google account pingback: transient | no Fixed Plans followed by rosa. Life stages so that you can easily target and manage it or transport through... Cosyra ( Walker ) serious damage to mature mango fruits 1979, De Lima.... In White and Elson-Harris ( 1992 ) after pupation lay eggs about 2 weeks pupation... Keywords: mango production, fruit fly, not sure which kind though I have to say the interesting!